Here you can read reports that have been produced during the LASH FIRE project.

Work Package 3 – Cooperation and Communication

D03.3 - First Dissemination and Communication Report and updated plan (May 2021)

This report informs about the strategic approaches that were conceived and applied to maximize the outreach of the LASH FIRE project and thus ensure its sustainable impact. For this purpose, target group-specific measures were identified and implemented through the third work package, which is dedicated to communication and cooperation. In addition, valuable forums were created through the establishment of two advisory groups, providing space for qualitative input regarding the need and applicability of the developed solution on fire safety in the maritime domain, as well as productive feedback on the proposed innovations.

D03.4 - Updated Dissemination and Communication Report and updated plan (August 2022)

 Abstract
This report informs about the strategic approaches that were conceived and applied to maximize the outreach of the LASH FIRE project and thus ensure its sustainable impact. For this purpose, target group-specific measures were identified and implemented through the third work package, which is dedicated to communication and cooperation. In addition, valuable forums were created through the establishment of two advisory groups, which provide room for qualitative input regarding the need and applicability of the solution developed concerning fire safety in maritime as well as productive feedback on the proposed innovations.

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending

D03.5 - First proposal on updated rules and regulations on fire safety (August 2022)

 

Abstract
The LASH FIRE Strategic objective is to provide a recognized technical basis for the revision of international IMO regulations, which greatly enhances fire prevention and ensures independent management of fires on ro-ro ships in current and future fire safety challenges.
The present deliverable makes a series of preliminary proposals on updated rules and regulations on fire safety based on the assessment made by the LASH FIRE Advisory Groups.

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending

Work Package 4 – Formal Safety Assesment

D04.1 - Review of accident causes and hazard identification report (May 2020)

 

A background study concerning fire causes in ro-ro spaces was performed and subsequently used as input for a Hazard Identification (HazId) workshop. The background study comprised the analytical component of the hazard identification and was subsequently complemented with a creative element, i.e. the HazId workshop which ensured that the identified hazards were not confined to those which have materialized in the past.

The workshop also focused on identifying potential safety measures. Examples include advancing technologies like drones, supplying ro-ro space personnel with dedicated thermal cameras, improved routines e.g. avoiding long cables and cable routing, and using only ship cables i.e. prohibiting passengers from using their own cables. These findings will be used as input to define conditions for manual screening of cargo fire hazards and effective fire patrols as well as describing methods for automatic screening and identification of cargoes, amongst other things.

Several potential fire origins were identified, refrigeration units being one of them. Taking into account that refrigeration units are more prone to fire than other types of cargo, and that refrigeration unit fires tend to be more severe, it is likely wise to put special focus on refrigeration units. A fair amount of work on this topic has already been conducted in the EMSA-funded FIRESAFE studies, which naturally served as reference in LASH FIRE.

D04.2 - Ro-ro space fire database and statistical analysis report (March 2021)

 

The Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) carried out in LASH FIRE requires a consolidated comprehensive database on fires in ro-ro spaces and the corresponding ship fleet to be set-up for specific use in the project. Such a database would allow a better understanding of the type of casualties and characteristics of ships in the FSA scope, and provides probabilities and frequencies that will be used in the quantification phase of the LASH FIRE risk model.

For this purpose, a comprehensive database was built by aggregation of different pools of information. Marine casualties, incidents and ship characteristics data were investigated, and collected from different maritime stakeholders. A data quality assessment was performed to select the data to be aggregated as one of the challenge was to propose a homogeneous and unbiased database from heterogeneous source of information. New additional features for the risk model were developed, and missing values for existing database features of importance were completed with ‘data science’ methods. Moreover, case by case studies were performed to refine the scope of the FSA study.

As a result, the comprehensive database was processed in order to draw statistics for the LASH FIRE fleet and fires in ro-ro spaces. The statistics provided an extensive overview of the fleet considered for the FSA study and frequencies of ignition per type of ro-ro ship.

D04.3 - Simulation tool for consequence quantification (April 2022)

Abstract
To address the lack of historical data, a simulation tool (hereafter referred to as STCQ) has been developed to quantify the consequences of ro-ro shipboard fires to people, ship, and cargo. The consequences of fires (except human consequences) will be converted into monetary units, which in turn will be used, as far as possible, as input data of the risk model to provide societal costs for different ro-ro space fire scenarios.

STCQ is the combination of three upgraded models:
• A CFD model, here the model SAFIR, to assess the fire consequences in the ro-ro space where the fire started, as well as in the other ro-ro spaces, embarkation stations, rescue stations and disembarkation routes out of the ship. More precisely, this involves evaluating the times after which given thresholds are exceeded. Heat and smoke detection times are also provided;
• A probabilistic network model to assess the consequences of fire and smoke in the accommodation spaces. The model estimates the level of damage by indicating the fire status (i.e., ignition, flashover, fully developed fire phase, or decay phase) and the position of the smoke interface over time in each accommodation compartment; and
• An evacuation model to evaluate fire consequences to persons on board.
This report briefly presents the numerical tools used and their extension to ro-ro ships, then the numerical results obtained by the STCQ for some selected worst credible scenarios over a duration of one hour of fire (the calculation time being too long to consider simulating all possible fire scenarios over 3 h of fire). Simulations of fire originating from closed and open ro-ro spaces, as well as on the weather decks of two generic ro-ro ships, namely the Stena Flavia and the Magnolia Seaways, have been performed by varying the location of the fire source and wind conditions (i.e., no wind and headwind). It was assumed that no firefighting action was taken and that the load capacity of vehicles in ro-ro spaces was 100%. Other scenarios have been added to study the influence on the fire consequences of accidental situations such as a loss of integrity of the insulation system, a loss of containment of the fire origin ro-ro space. Finally, simulations of evacuation (i.e., for both assembly and abandonment phases) during the selected fire scenarios have been performed.

Simulation results for two fire scenarios on the Stena Flavia are detailed and discussed. To ensure consistency and ease of use of the expected results in the risk model, the results obtained for all selected fire scenarios are presented in the form of files indicating the times, or periods of time, when given thresholds, related to heat and smoke detection, safety of persons on board, and integrity of the ship’s structure, cargo, and other targets, are exceeded, and compared with evacuation times (where relevant).

For this purpose, a comprehensive database was built by aggregation of different pools of information. Marine casualties, incidents and ship characteristics data were investigated, and collected from different maritime stakeholders. A data quality assessment was performed to select the data to be aggregated as one of the challenge was to propose a homogeneous and unbiased database from heterogeneous source of information. New additional features for the risk model were developed, and missing values for existing database features of importance were completed with ‘data science’ methods. Moreover, case by case studies were performed to refine the scope of the FSA study.

As a result, the comprehensive database was processed in order to draw statistics for the LASH FIRE fleet and fires in ro-ro spaces. The statistics provided an extensive overview of the fleet considered for the FSA study and frequencies of ignition per type of ro-ro ship.

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending

D04.4 - Holistic risk model (February 2022)

 

The Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) carried out in LASH FIRE requires the development and quantification of a holistic risk model describing the fire growth and response in ro-ro spaces. The objective is to compute the risk levels in terms of life, cargo and ship loss for the three generic ships (one for ro-ro passenger ship fleet, ro-ro cargo ship fleet and vehicle carrier fleet) as well as to assess the impact of each solution proposed by the D&D WPs on these safety levels. For this purpose, a risk model mainly based on the risk model from the FIRESAFE studies was
developed and quantified. It was then implemented using Microsoft Excel and split into three files, one for each type of ro-ro ship. These files return the risk indicators, also called safety levels, of human (PLL), cargo (PLC) and ship (PLS) for the corresponding generic ship. The values used to quantify these files can be later modified to assess the impact of a proposed solution on the safety levels mentioned above.

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending

D04.5 - Development of holistic risk model report (February 2022)

 

The Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) carried out in LASH FIRE requires the development and quantification of a holistic risk model describing the fire growth and response in ro-ro spaces. The objective is to compute the risk levels in term of life, cargo and ship loss for the three generic ships, as well as to assess the impact of each solution proposed by the D&D WPs on these safety levels. For this purpose, the FIRESAFE studies and more particularly their risk model were reviewed, as well as several other modelling techniques. The FIRESAFE risk model structure was adapted to LASH FIRE’s scope and objectives, to take into account ro-ro cargo ships and vehicle carriers, as well as some failure modes not yet present in the FIRESAFE risk model but necessary for the study of proposed solutions. Once the structure was established, the risk model was quantified using values from FIRESAFE models, when relevant, historical data and expert judgement. The quantification was verified. Based on this risk model, several safety levels were computed and assessed, and several analyses (i.e. sensitivity and other verification) were performed to verify the model.

As a result, several types of risk models were analysed and their strengths and weaknesses were described. For numerous reasons it was decided to keep as much as practicable the same risk model structure as FIRESAFE II. Similarly, it was decided to keep as much as practicable of the probabilities used in FIRESAFE II to quantify the risk model. Historical data, calculations and expert judgement were used to quantify the parts of the risk model where this was not deemed suitable. As far as possible, consequences associated to the determined scenarios were computed using numerical simulations performed in T04.5, and ship operators were contacted to provide data when necessary.

Last, but not least, this completed risk model was used to compute safety levels for the different reference cases, but also to determine the most sensitive nodes with regard to the safety levels. Other analyses were also performed, for example to determine the top risk contributor ro-ro spaces in terms of loss of life for each generic ship.

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending

D04.9 - Preliminary impact of solutions and related testing and demonstrations plan (April 2022)

Roro ships are an important component of the global transportation system and one of the most successful types of vessels today. However, a significant number of fire incidents on roro ships in recent years and lacking signs of such diminishing call for improved fire protection.

LASH FIRE is a European Unionfunded research project, aiming to strengthen the independent fire protection of roro ships by developing and validating effective operative and design solutions. For that purpose, LASH FIREwill address a total of twenty challenges in all stages of fire course originating in roro spaces. Several solutions will be developed, validated and demonstrated to address those challenges.

This deliverable provides a compilation of the solutions selected for further consideration in the costeffectiveness assessment. A total of 44solutions were preliminary selected by the Development and Demonstration Work Packages (D&D WPs). The list of solutions is covering the entire “fire protection chain”, it comprises both preventive and mitigating risk controls, as well as both engineering, inherent and procedural risk controls.

As next steps, those solutions will be assessedby WP03, WP04 and WP05. Meanwhile, the D&D WPs will continue and refine the ongoing developments, conduct the validation and the demonstration of solutions.

This deliverable reflects an intermediate stage of the project and shall not be understood or used as a final outcome of the LASH FIRE project.

 

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending

Work Package 5 – Ship Integration

D05.1 - Definition of generic ships (August 2021)

This report presents the selection process and the definition of generic roro shipsutilized in the LASH FIRE project for the evaluation of new fire safety solutions. Three main categories of ships werearranged (ropax ships, roro cargo ships and vehicle carriers) where one representative existing ship in each category was selected;the roro passenger generic ship Stena Flavia, roro cargo generic ship Magnolia Seaways and vehicle carrier generic ship Torrens. In the selection, considerationwas primarily given to the arrangement of roro cargo spaces, in addition to passenger and cargo capacity, gross tonnage and length of the shipin comparison to the statistical data of the world fleet.

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending

D05.2 - Cost assessment tool (February 2022)

 

Alongside the evaluation of technical and operational solutions developed in the project, the economic feasibility of the solutions needs to be evaluated throughout the entire life span. Therefore, the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) methodology has been adapted to assess the characteristics, the pros, and cons of each solution for generic ro-ro ship types. Furthermore, the LCC assessment is required as input to calculate the cost-effectiveness in Formal Safety Assessment (FSA). In this deliverable, the evaluation process of the calculations of their parameters and results becomes clear. The following deliverable, on the other hand, deals with the development of the calculation system itself.

In order to measure the economic feasibility of the solution, CMT developed a basic LCC tool and data collector to calculate the LCC of each solution. The tool was supplemented by the user guide. The tool and data collector also completed with the cost categories to guide the user to input the economic value.

Furthermore, the tool takes into account varying fuel prices in the future, as the life span can reach beyond ten or twenty years. Besides that, the users are able to know the impact of the solutions on the environment from the external cost value. The calculation of the external cost is extracted from the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). To understand the impact of the world economy and legislation situation on the LCC, a sensitivity analysis was made available in the tool so the users can understand the impact on the cost if a different scenario might happen in the future.

In the last chapter, the users are able to know all the LCC tool’s features and finds a detailed guideline to navigate and use the tool correctly.

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending

D05.3 - Development of cost assessment tool (February 2022)

Alongside the evaluation of technical and operational solutions developed in the project, the economic feasibility of the solutions needs to be evaluated throughout the entire life span. Therefore, the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) methodology has been adapted to assess the characteristics, the pros and cons of each solution for generic ro-ro ship types. Furthermore, the LCC assessment is required as input to calculate the cost effectiveness in Formal Safety Assessment (FSA). In this deliverable the development of the calculation system is shown, whereas the previous deliverable “D05.2 Cost assessment tool” focuses on the evaluation process of the calculations, their parameters and results.

In order to calculate the LCC, a basic LCC tool developed by CMT during the project will be used. The tool has the capability to calculate the LCC of the solutions. The Key Performance Indicator (KPI) and relational KPIs, which reflect the LCC results in different parameters, have been defined together with the tool users. Furthermore, the tool takes into account varying fuel prices in the future, as the life span can reach beyond ten or twenty years. Besides that, the users are able to know the impact of the solutions on the environment from the external cost value. The calculation of the external cost is extracted after the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). To understand the impact of the world economy and legislation situation on the LCC, a sensitivity analysis was made available in the tool so the users can understand the impact on the cost if a different scenario might happen in the future.

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending

D05.4 - Environmental assessment tool (February 2022)

This report describes the functionality of the lifecycle assessment (LCA) screening tool used as guidance during the development of fire protection systems in the LASH FIRE project. A more comprehensive description of the LCA screening tool is presented in deliverable D05.5.
The excel® spreadsheet-based LCA screening tool is comprised of fire models, output from SimaPro® LCA software, and scaling calculations. The fire models provide data about the type and amount of fire effluents going to the air as smoke and to surface water as fire water run-off. The SimaPro® output is in terms of these environmental impact categories: Fine particulate matter formation, Freshwater ecotoxicity, Global warming, and Marine ecotoxicity. The calculations within the LCA screening tool are used to scale the results so that they can be compared graphically.

The results are presented in bar graphs showing the total impacts, normalized to the highest impact in each category, which are provided next to the input area so that users can interactively see how the impacts change with new input. Detailed results are presented on a separate worksheet so that users can see both the numerical results and the graphical results showing the relative contributions from manufacturing, installation, use, end of life, fire emissions, and fire response to the overall impacts in each category. All the other worksheets in the tool are hidden and protected so that the calculations cannot accidentally be corrupted.

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending

D05.5 - Development of environmental assessment tool (February 2022)

This report describes the development of a lifecycle assessment (LCA) screening tool that allows environmental consequences to be considered, together with other design factors such as cost, manufacturing processes, material availability, etc, during the development of fire protection systems in the LASH FIRE project.

The platform for the LCA screening tool is an excel® spreadsheet file; expert knowledge of environmental impacts is not needed to use it. The tool is based on output from SimaPro® software, in which detailed LCA models of the risk control measures are created. The SimaPro® results are scaled so that comparisons can be made between alternative RCMs and a reference case. Fire models provide important data about the type and amount of fire effluents going to the air as smoke and surface water as fire water run-off. The fire models used in a previous version of the tool will be modified in the spring of 2022 when fire experiments for Actions 6-D and 10-B are conducted. A tour of the user-accessible worksheets is presented to allow users to understand what they see and how to manage the output from the tool. Detailed descriptions are given about how each part of the tool works and case studies describe how the tool was developed to fit the needs of Actions 6-D and 10-B. This document provides a limited amount of background information about the science of life cycle assessment as needed to support user understanding of the tool.

The results are presented in terms of: Fine particulate matter formation, Freshwater ecotoxicity, Global warming, and Marine ecotoxicity. Bar graphs showing the total impacts, normalized to the highest impact in each category, are provided next to the input area so that users can interactively see how the impacts change with new input. Detailed results are presented on a separate worksheet so that users can see both the numerical results and the graphical results showing the relative contributions from manufacturing, installation, use, end of life, fire emissions, and fire response to the overall impacts in each category. All the other worksheets in the tool are hidden and protected so that the calculations cannot accidentally be corrupted.

It is hoped that this tool will help the partners involved in this project become more aware of the environmental consequences of their design decisions, both for the LASH FIRE project and for other
future work.

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending

D05.6 - Ship integration requirements (August 2022)

 

Abstract
This report presents the ship integration requirements addressed to all the developments within the LASHFIRE project. To ensure a good quality starting point for the addressed developments, it is crucial that ship designers and operators are involved in the development process. Thus, specific input has been prepared, adjusted to each development, considering the design, production, operational and environmental aspects as well as applicable rules and regulations. Further, all types of ro-ro ships and all types of ro-ro spaces have been considered where appropriate. Finally, expectations and proposal for the developments have been given. This ensured a good starting point for the development teams, making a clear picture of the end user requirements

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending

Work Package 6 – Effective Manual Operations

Facts and Myths About Fires in Battery Electric Vehicles

As new energy carriers make their way into the market, some misconceptions will naturally also make their way to the public. The objective of this report is to respond to some of the most common misconceptions and myths regarding battery electric vehicle fires, while highlighting the latest research and available data.

Read our 2-pager here.
Read the full reprt here.

 

D06.1 - Development of and guidelines for quick manual fire confirmation and localization (May 2022)

When a fire signal like heat or smoke is detected by technical equipment and alarmed, the vessel crew will check if it is a real fire or not. If fire signals are detected by several sensors, in several areas, or if a fire is seen on CCTV, the fire is confirmed, and the firefighting team will be mustered.

However, often only one sensor has gone off. Then, the fire must be manually confirmed or dismissed by a crew member. Current practice is that the officer on watch ask an able seaman (AB) (often bridge watch or fire patrol) to run to manually confirm and identify the fire (Bram, Millgård, & Degerman, 2019). This person can thus be called the runner. The response to a fire alarm must be as fast as possible, to tackle the fire at the initial stage. However, previous research shows that the task often takes some time and have identified several challenges delaying the manual confirmation and localization. These practices thus could be improved to increase the chance to successfully fight a fire.

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending

D06.3 - Development of guidelines for communication of fire confirmation (February 2022)

This document is an output of the LASH FIRE Project, within the Work Package 6 – Effective Manual Operations. Its main goal is to report the progress on the work conducted in developing guidelines for communication of fire confirmation within the context of ro-ro and ro-pax vessels.
The development of the work and the elaboration of this deliverable involved the participation of several partners of Work Package 6, who contributed with their own expertise, along with the research and field visits conducted. Furthermore, the data gathered from work done in other Actions of the Project was another form of input towards this task.

The overall result of Deliverable 06.3 are proposals for guidelines to be implemented by operators in their onboard routine operations, leading to more efficient communication of fire confirmation, which ultimately will result in quicker response time and a safer environment abord this type of ships. This involved understanding the state of fire confirmation and communication, and looking for ways to develop methods or tools in which crew members can establish quick and efficient ways to share fire related safety status updates to command.

D06.3 is also a part of a set of reports that aim to propose guidelines to onboard activities that aim, as a whole, to increase fire safety by improving the efficacy of manual operations in ro-ro/ro-pax scenarios. Furthermore, Work Package 6 will continue to strive towards these objectives.

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending

D06.4 - Background and Testing of smart alert system of nearby first responders (November 2021)

 

The sixth work package in LASH FIRE deals with effective manual operations and the aim of Task T06.10 therein, is the development and demonstration of smart alert system of nearby first responders. Particularly, the research objective is to develop an innovative geo-positioning technology to allow more efficient first response to initial fires on ro-ro vessels. Besides the core geo-positioning technology, the aim is also to provide the building blocks of a novel vessel indoor information system that will provide fire intelligence during patrol operations. For the above purpose, T06.10 capitalizes upon the technology ecosystem of Anyplace, which is a Wi-Fi localization, navigation, crowdsourcing and indoor modeling platform developed over the years at the University of Cyprus. Although Wi-Fi, 4G and 5G is available or will become available to some limited degree on vessels to provide network (and Internet) connectivity to personnel and passengers, dense deployment of radio antennas necessary to provide accurate localization is not available. This led to the design and development of an innovative geo-positioning technology with “zero” infrastructure. Particularly, the aim was to offer similar accuracy to Wi-Fi localization (i.e., room-level accuracy to about 1-10 meters) with low installation and maintenance cost. Our solution uses static elements of vessel spaces as reference points and can be recognized by commodity smartphone cameras (e.g., deck patterns, bulkhead patterns, hoses, fixed installations, signs, control buttons). The spatial location of vessel objects is collected as a one-off installation process and can then be utilized for technology-driven localization
and first response in the early stages of a fire.

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending

D06.5 - Development of new standards for effective fire patrols and recommendations for manual screening of cargo fire hazards (August 2022)

Abstract
This deliverable is an output of the LASH FIRE project, within its Work Package 6, “Effective Manual Operations”. It intends to address the question of fire patrols and manual screening of cargo fire hazards onboard ro-ro passenger ships, ro-ro cargo ships and vehicle carriers by analysing the current state within the sector and providing suggestions for the development of new standards for these operations.
For the development of the tasks that lead to this document, as well as its predecessor, deliverable D06.2 Guidelines for manual screening of cargo fire hazards and effective fire patrols, the project team used a variety of input from internal LASH FIRE documents, research, interviews, ship visits and their own expertise to establish the best possible solutions on important improvements in manual screening
of cargo and fire patrols. The objective, as with the whole of LASH FIRE, is to contribute to decreasing fire risks onboard ro-ro ships, as well as endorse a continuous improvement of safety procedures and measures at sea.

In summation, the result of the work conducted within the work package Effective Manual Operations, the predecessor deliverables and input from other partners and documents have allowed the team to develop a better understanding of the difficulties these operations carry, and in what ways, even if in small increments, they can be improved. This deliverable, along with several other outputs of this work package, work in tandem to provide a suite of risk mitigation proposals and routines, that can hopefully guarantee some increase in fire safety onboard the addressed ships.

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending

D06.6 - Development of smart alert of nearby first responders (August 2022)

 

Abstract
The sixth work package in LASH FIRE deals with effective manual operations and the aim of Task T06.10 therein, was the development and demonstration of smart alert system of nearby first responders. The research objective was to develop an innovative geo-positioning technology (i.e., longitude, latitude and deck with room level accuracy) to allow more efficient first response to initial fires on roro vessels. To this end, we developed and demonstrate a ground-breaking localization system that requires “zero” fixed infrastructure. Our solution uses static elements of vessel spaces as reference points that can be recognized by commodity smartphone cameras (e.g., deck patterns, bulkhead patterns, hoses, fixed installations, signs, control buttons). The spatial location of vessel objects is collected as a one-off installation process and can then be utilized for technology-driven localization and first response in the early stages of a fire. Besides the core geo-positioning technology, the aim was also to provide the building blocks of a novel vessel indoor information system that will provide fire intelligence during patrol operations. For the above purpose, we developed a fully functional vessel communication software system, coined Smart Alert System (SMAS), which integrates besides our localization technology also subsystems allowing first responders to interact over an ordinary network communication channel to exchange messages and data (e.g., heat scans, images, etc.). This provides high levels of situational awareness to cope with information communication bottlenecks in the early stages of a developing fire.

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending

Work Package 7 – Inherently Safe Design

D07.1 - Study and analysis of regulations, accident investigations and stakeholders for bridge alarm panel design (November 2020)

 

Previous research has shown that even though a ship may fulfil all regulations, crew activities related to fire safety can still be impaired by the design of working environments, equipment and system interfaces. Although a wealth of guidance exists on the integration of Human-Centered Design (HCD) principles into ship design, such design practices remain uncommon within the industry. There is a need of research that describes how the ship design and construction process can be augmented to better cater for fire safety-related operative needs, what barriers exist against HCD practices in the design of safety-critical artefacts, and how those barriers can be overcome. Given that the shipping industry adheres closely to regulation, regulatory studies is also a vital part of understanding the position of Human Factors and Ergonomics in ship fire safety design.

Based on results from the Firesafe II and SEBRA projects, one area of fire-safety related design that is in particular need of attention is fire alarm system interface design. The aim of this report is to research development needs in terms of usability and systems integration for fire alarm system interfaces and to turn this knowledge into design requirements that will inform subsequent conceptual and physical design of a fire information management system in LASH FIRE.

D07.2 - Field Study Report of Alarm Panel Insufficiencies and Improvement Identification (April 2022)

The LASH FIRE Digital Fire Central prototype has been developed over several iterations to arrive at its current state – an interactive, screen-based interface with functionality to match a large set of common fire management activities, including fire detection and assessment, deck and cargo information, control of fire dampers, fire doors and the drencher system. In addition, it also allows its users to follow events on a fire response timeline. Up until the time of this study, however, prototype development has mainly rested on needs and feedback reported by informants and test persons, and there was a perceived needs amongst the researchers to better understand the practical actions and
interactions that would occur in an actual onboard fire scenario.

Two approaches were chosen to produce data for the present study. The primary ambition was to reach a deeper understanding of operational fire management under realistic circumstances. The secondary ambition was to gather experiences and perceptions from an international community of seafarers involved in onboard fire management and the use of fire safety systems.

 

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending

D07.4 - Development of firefighting resource management centre design (August 2022)

 

Abstract
This report presents the development of the firefighting resource management centre (FRMC) design. The FRMC encompasses the entire management of resources involved in a fire scenario, including training, fire-drills, the people involved in fighting the fire, how they are organised, their communication, their equipment and how they use it. Data has been collected through interviews, remote ethnography, and virtual walkthroughs. This report includes a presentation of the central functions of the FRMC analysed with the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM), how to use the FRMC FRAM to improve safety and presents the process of continuous improvement. The process of continuous improvement gives guidance on how to increase learning from fire drills through analysing recorded drills and improved debrief and reflections post-drill.

 

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending

D07.5 - Alarm system interface prototype Demonstration (August 2022)

 

Executive Summary
The goal for LASH FIRE task T07.5 was to develop a demonstrator/prototype of a holistic alarm interface of a Digital Fire Central (DFC), the aim being to utilize the potential of an integrated digital interface for fire plans and alarm displays by combining various already existing interfaces as well as new concepts in one. This approach delivers a demonstration of an interface which shows live information about the fire and the firefighting effort directly on the fire plan while also enabling the fire commander to exclude irrelevant information. In addition, a centralised, digital interface integrates all the information necessary in one place. This has been achieved by prototyping in four iterations and user testing of the DFC with active crewmembers. The demonstration of the DFC, including experimental sessions, was conducted in a laboratory environment at a shipowner’s headquarters with active fire commanders. LASH FIRE D07.6 ‘Alarm System Interface Prototype Development and Testing’ includes detailed descriptions of the different elements of the interface of the DFC, the physical design of the operator’s station, the testing of the DFC and the corresponding results; the present document is limited to include a short summary, the primary purpose being to serve as evidence of the testing.

 

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending

D07.6 - Alarm system interface prototype development and testing (August 2022)

 

Abstract
The current standard of analogue fire plans and alarm systems on ro-ro ships is a relic of its time. It works as intended, but it also has a lot of potential for problems. Other, preceding works within LASH FIRE have analysed the potential bottlenecks, high cognitive load, and out-of-date interface design of current standards. Next to these analyses, earlier work has also lined out design guidelines for a digital alarm interface for fire centrals on board. This report presents the design and demonstration of the Digital Fire Central (DFC) developed within the LASH FIRE project. The main objectives were to present information about the situation on the digital fire plan by visualising sensor data, enable the user to access the historical data of the development of the fire, and a centralisation of the controls of extinguishing equipment. The user will be able to oversee and coordinate the entire attack on the fire from one interface. The demonstration of the prototype was performed with fire leaders who are active on ro-ro vessels in which they had to coordinate an attack on a fire on a car deck. The results of the DFC demonstration support the original idea of integration of information based on the principles of user centred design and ecological display design. Departing in user needs and the physical properties of the problem to be addressed – ro-ro deck fire – by the first analysis the DFC demonstrator provides a level of effectiveness, efficiency, satisfaction and intuitiveness that appears to surpass present-day installations and -systems. In short, this means that a DFC, or a DFC-like system, is likely to improve of firefighting capability on ro-ro ships, and thus that this is a valid risk control option from a functional perspective.

 

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending

Work Package 8 – Ignition Prevention

D08.1 - Definition and parametrization of critical fire hazards, classification of cargoes, transport units, engines, fuels and vessels and identification methodologies (June 2021)

Based on historical data and previous projects; FIRESAFE 1& 2 (EMSA, 2021), Lighthouse In-door positioning on RoRo vessels (2017), these studies includes conclusions taken from the fire cause perspective and highlights the differences in fire sources, from the ship’s equipment and the cargo. The statistics regarding the probability related to fires originating in ro-ro spaces was performed and subsequently used as input for a Hazard Identification (HAZID) workshop (LASH FIRE, 2020) where the main takeaways are:

  • The ship’s equipment is rarely the cause of fire, rather the ship’s cargo is generally the culprit.
  • Electrical fault originating in the ship’s cargo is the most common cause of fires in ro-ro spaces.
  • Although refrigerated units typically constitute a relatively limited proportion of all the carried cargo onboard it is statistically the most fire hazardous type of cargo in terms of probability and severity.
  • While electrical failures in internal combustion engine vehicles constitute an apparent hazard, especially if the vehicles are in poor condition, there is little, if any, data that suggests electrical vehicles are more prone to fire than internal combustion engine vehicles.
  • Gas leaks in Alternatively Powered Vehicles (APV) that leads to fire is a rare occurrence.
D08.2 - Fire hazard mapping visualization tool with fire hazard matching integrated (January 2022)

This report describes the Fire Hazard Matching tool one of the main results of the LASHFIRE project related to automatic screening and management of cargo fire hazards.

The hazard mapping tool is a software that enables the visualization of risky ‘hot’ zones and different hazard types of cargo as a support element to identify hazards associated to each zone of the ship according to the cargo unit’s position at planning and real level.

The Fire Hazard Matching tool is able to evaluate fire risk associated to all cargo units of a given ship loading configuration using an easy-to-use graphical interface that can be run both in computers and hand-held devices (mobile phones or tablets). It is developed as a standalone visualization and interaction module for the Stowage Planning Tool, the overall software tool result of action 8-A. The Fire Hazard Matching tool is currently available at https://lashfire.cimne.com/login.aspx

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending

D08.3 - Development of fire hazard mapping visualization tool with fire hazard matching integrated (January 2022)

This deliverable covers the requirements, the specification and the technologies used for the implementation and testing phases of a Fire Hazard Matching tool one of the main results of the LASHFIRE project related to automatic screening and management of cargo fire hazards.

Since the different types of cargo that can be transported or rolled onboard ro-ro cargo and ro-ro passenger ships is limitless, focus is on the cargo types that possess the most frequent issues, cargo that is classified as hazardous or possess new types of dangers to passengers, crew and ships, e.g. new types of alternative powers for vehicles. The Fire Hazard Matching tool it is a software that will enable the visualization of risky ‘hot’ zones and different hazard types of cargo as a support element to identify hazards associated to each zone of the ship according to the cargo unit’s position at planning and real level.

The Fire Hazard Matching tool is able to evaluate fire risk associated to all cargo units of a given ship loading configuration using an easy-to-use graphical interface that can be run both in computers and hand-held devices (mobile phones or tablets). It is developed as a standalone visualization and interaction module for the Stowage Planning Tool, the overall software tool result of action 8-A.

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending

Work Package 9 – Detection

 

Work Package 10 – Extinguishment

D10.1 - Description of the development of automatic first response fire protection systems for ro-ro spaces on vehicle carriers (January2022)

Ro-ro spaces on vehicle carriers are typically protected by a total-flooding Carbon Dioxide system. Due to its toxicity, there could be a considerable time delay from the start of a fire until the Carbon Dioxide system is discharged, which can cause fire damage and jeopardize the performance of the system. This report summarises the development, theoretical evaluation, and preliminary assessment of supplementary water-based Automatic first response fire protection systems.

The system should automatically activate at an early stage of the fire and limit the size of a vehicle fire to allow more time to fight the fire safely manually or to safely evacuate the space prior to discharging the Carbon Dioxide system.The starting point for the work was a comprehensive literature review, identifying relevant standards and information in those standards that are applicable to the design of an automatic fire sprinkler and Compressed Air Foam System (CAFS). The literature review did also summarize fire tests and field experience with automatic sprinkler and water spray systems.

Three primary systems were studied in detail, a dry-pipe sprinkler system utilizing automatic sprinklers, an automatic deluge water spray system and a deluge CAFS using rotating nozzles. For the first system, individual sprinklers are activated by the heat from the fire, the latter systems require a fire detection system for activation. The system development work included small– and intermediatescale tests. Small-scale CAFS tests were conducted to establish the most efficient foam agent, the admixture concentration, and foam expansion ratio. Intermediate-scale fire tests were conducted with a water spray system and a prototype CAFS to determine the fire suppression performance. Large-scale system validation fire tests were conducted. The results proved that suggested system solutions provided the intended fire control of vehicles in a simulated ro-ro vehicle space.

The work has resulted in detailed design and installation guidelines (as given in the Annex of the report), where additional systems are recognized. These guidelines may be part of regulatory requirements or be adopted on a voluntary basis.

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending

Work Package 11 – Containment

D11.1 - Development, theoretical evaluation and preliminary assessment of requirements for horizontal division of ro-ro spaces (February2022)

 

The International Maritime Organization, through its correspondence group on fire safety, has underlined the need for more scientific studies regarding the performance of A-60 boundaries in case of a ro-ro space fire. The goal of the present study was to clarify the state-of-the-art fire protection capacity of A class thermal insulation when exposed to the heat exposure from a realistic fire in a ro-ro space. The study has been conducted in Work Package 11 – Containment (WP11) of the EU funded project LASH FIRE.

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending

D11.3 - Development of means for Ro-Ro ship safe evacuation conditions in relation to fire integrity and walk-off abandonment (July 2022)

One objective of the LASH FIRE project was to develop solutions and recommendations to ensure safe evacuation during safe return to port (considering a fire integrity for 3 hours) and when arriving at foreign port. In this report, the abandonment phase of the ship was therefore considered. For this phase to be possible, the passengers should have gathered first in a designated safe area known as the assembly station in due time. Subsequently, when the means of abandoning the ship become available, the passengers start leaving the ship.

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending

D11.4 - Description of development and assessment of safe ro-ro space openings (June 2022)

 

Abstract
Fires in open ro-ro spaces have been identified as a serious hazard since the generated heat and smoke can spread through ro-ro space openings to critical areas such as embarkation stations and life-saving appliances, thus endangering safe evacuation. In this report, the safe arrangement of ro-ro space openings in relation to critical areas on board ro-ro vessels is studied.
Simulations of fires in ro-ro spaces of two generic ships were performed using Fire Dynamics Simulator software to study heat transfer and smoke spread from ro-ro space side and end openings to critical areas. The studied scenarios included a heavy goods vehicle fire in different locations, and wind direction and speed were varied. Separate criteria were established for human and material safety.
To validate simulation results, large-scale testing was undertaken to provide comparative temperature and radiation measurements for a fire plume from an opening. Although general trends were similar, the experimental results did not provide a close correlation with the simulation results, due to smaller fire source in the tests compared to the simulated fire and differences in geometry.
A test series assessing the critical heat flux for ignition for a selection of materials used in life-saving appliances was performed. The critical heat fluxes measured were of the same order of magnitude as the critical limits assumed in simulations.
Based on the fire simulation results, potential risk control measures to establish a safe design for ro-ro space openings were identified and discussed. Implementing safety distances between the ro-ro space openings and critical areas seems to be an effective way to ensure safety of the critical areas. In newbuilds, the safety distances could be implemented by means of novel ship designs. For existing ships, the safety distances could be established by either closing some openings or by fitting some of the openings with suitable closure devices. In addition, manoeuvring can be used to direct smoke away from the critical areas in case of fire if conditions are favourable.

Deliverable is under review, formal approval by EC pending